San Roque and Los Barrios - The stranger is now acquainted with whatever deserves notice, within the garrison of Gibraltar; fortunately, as well for him as the resident inhabitants, excursions, in consequence of the good understanding between Great Britain and Spain, and the courtesy of the authorities in the immediate vicinity, are no longer limited to Europa point, and the mountain roads.
Los Barrios near Gibraltar (Mid 19th century – Unknown )
They now take a wider range and without interruption or molestation of any sort are extended into Spain, in all directions. Availing himself of this advantage, he visits the town of San Roque; to which, accompanied by the inhabitants of the garrison when captured, - who, almost without exception, quitted their native place and quiet abode, rather than submit to heretical sway, - were conveyed the archives and public documents of the city, with as many valuables as were, by the capitulation, allowed to be removed.
The smaller articles were easily removed by the aid of devout Christians of both sexes, although the practice being continued by a successor of the curate Romero, (see LINK) less admit, or less reserved, intimation of these clandestine abstractions (plain terms, robbing the church), was given to the governor by the Genoese, (unworthy Christians, as they are called by a Spanish historian), (see LINK) and the Padre Lopez de Pena was drummed out of the garrison.
The removal of larger objects, was a. more difficult operation, and much ingenuity was required, particularly for the translation of the statue of San Joseph, whose corpulency admitted of no concealment. After long consultation, the saint was unniched - decorated with earthly habiliments, jacket, sash, indescribables, and leggings that would have done honour to the finest Andalusian calf, then crowned with a gay monteiro, and in this state, mounted on a horse, with a contrabandista in full costume behind for his support, surrounded by numerous others, the cavalcade with the usual noise and shoutings, boldly proceeded through the town, and finally lodged the saint in the church at Los Barrios, where he still occupies a conspicuous place and where the miracle of his extraction from the hands of the heretics, is recounted with devotional gratitude.
On the eminence where now stands the town, there was in those days, little else than a chapel for the use of the agricultural labourers around. By the accession of the fugitives from Gibraltar, it presently increased, and has of late, in consequence of its intercourse with the garrison, become a place of wealth and importance. With a lingering hope of again possessing the fortress, the city of Gibraltar, is said to exist in San Roque; and the general who commands there, as well as at Algeziras, is called the commandant of the Campo de Gibraltar.
San Roque ( Early 20th century - A Moulton Foweraker ) (See LINK)
The inhabitants of the garrison, avail themselves of this peaceful state of things; many of them making San Roque their summer residence, and others, throughout the year, a place of resort and recreation. Nothing can exceed the purity of its air, nor the healthiness of its situation, and it is justly denominated the Montpellier of the district.
Carteia - On our way to San Roque, we pass the spot where once stood the ancient and important city of Carteia, (see LINK) renowned in early ages for its temples, its buildings, and arenas; the resort of the Phenicians, the Carthagenians, and the Romans; and emporium of commerce and support of powerful navies: but over which the plough, for many ages, has been silently dragged along.
Gibraltar from the Ruins of Carteia ( 1771 - Francis Carter ) (See LINK)
The curious observer still discovers vestiges of its ancient site, and fragments of temples, urns, and sarcophagi, are yet occasionally dug up. A few years ago, on searching for large stones, two fine pieces of the frieze of a temple were again brought to light: their size and appearance indicate the extent and magnificence of the building which they must have adorned, and the antiquarian regrets that those to whom the land now belongs, have not zeal or enthusiasm enough to make farther and more extended researches.
The town council of San Roque, however, had the good taste to give perpetuity, as far as they were able, to the more valuable of these two relics, by having it built into the wall of the town-house, at the top of the principal staircase, to which it is an interesting ornament. The other, in less preservation, is taken care of in private possession. Of all that relates to Carteia, the most remarkable circumstance, probably, is the continual finding, at this late period, of coins scattered over a large tract, and so near the surface, as to be thrown up at every season of ploughing.
They are chiefly of copper, not found in heaps or in urns, but singly and in all directions. Silver coins are rarely met with, but Mr. Carter (see LINK) in his work above mentioned, has given engravings, and an elaborate description of very good specimens in his possession; the antiquarian and collector will do well to consult this author, on whatever relates to the early history of Gibraltar and its vicinity. The Carteia coins are of diminished value, in consequence of their number; but some excellent specimens, as well as of other valuable coins, are in the hands of a gentleman in the garrison, who has a valuable collection.
A selection of Francis Carter’s coins from Carteya
The Convent of Almoraima – Situated in a wood, denominated the ‘Cork-wood,’ about fifteen miles from Gibraltar, is another object of attraction to strangers. The building has long since been dilapidated, a single priest only remaining to celebrate mass. The estate, however, of which this wood is a part, is extensive and valuable, although neglected, and in a great measure, ruined by bad management in injudicious banking, and by recklessly cutting down trees for charcoal.
It belongs to the Marquis of Moscoso, a branch of the Medina Sidonia family; and it is believed, that from the Almoraima district alone, even in its neglected state, he derives a revenue of 35,000 dollars a year; while, under proper management, and by obvious improvements, this annual produce might be doubled.
Convent of the Almoraima ( Mid 19th century – Unknown )
Castellar - About four miles beyond the Almoraima convent, stands Castellar, on a commanding eminence. As the road is indifferent, to ride there from Gibraltar and return is a long day’s journey, recompensed only by the beauty of the scenery and the splendid view from that elevation.
Castellar ( 1824 - James Bucknall - Estcourt )
Algeciras - If the traveller is inclined to visit Algeziras by land, he will have the satisfaction of passing two rivers of some celebrity, - not on bridges which might easily be constructed, but by means of cumbrous ferry boats. The first, the Gaudaranque, its mouth now nearly blocked up by sand, but in Carteia’s brilliant day, a retreat and security for the Carthagenian and Roman gallies - the other, the Palmones, not less remarkable; it being there that the junk ships, supposed to be shot proof, were constructed for the attack on Gibraltar 1781.
The Guadaranque is useless for navigation, and the Palmones serves only for loading coasting craft with charcoal. Algeziras has of late become a very thriving place, and is now an agreeable residence. It was formerly of little note, scarcely of higher rank than a fishing village; but being the resort of privateers during the late war, much wealth was then accumulated. It has never been a commercial place; for not having any permanently established custom-house, it has little regular trade, except for the supply of its population.
It has long been the residence of the General commanding the district around Gibraltar; it has a handsome plaza, with many good houses, and is tolerably well kept. A great disposition for improvement has lately manifested itself, and the construction of numerous good buildings is projected in an advantageous situation.
Algeziras, like Gibraltar, in ancient times, underwent many vicissitudes, and was equally afflicted by the depredations of the Moors. After many conflicts, being ruined and almost depopulated, it was by Henry the fourth, in 1462, annexed, for its security, to the district of its more powerful neighbour, and became part of the extent before noticed, denominated the city of Gibraltar.
A view of Gibraltar with Algeciras in the middle distance (1839 – William Lacey ) (See LINK)
With little difficulty the traveller may make excursions to Los Barrios and Tarifa on one side, and to Estepona and Marbella on the other; or he may go northward to Ximena and Ronda, and contemplate the battle-ﬁeld of Munda, where, forty-five years before the Christian era, the sons of Pompey were defeated by Caesar, contending for the dominion of the world. The whole of this neighbourhood will be recognised by the scholar as classic ground, and in contemplating the numerous remains of antiquity everywhere to be met with he will be amply repaid for his labour in the research.
On repassing the Spanish lines at the northern extremity of the neutral ground, the stranger will have observed extensive ruins reaching down to the beach, and terminating in a mound or heap, where formerly stood fort San Felipe. From this point eastward ran the Spanish lines, well fortified by towers and redoubts, to the eastern beach, where stood the equally strong and imposing fort of Santa Barbara. (See LINK) The whole was constructed at an enormous expense, about the year 1730, and was always maintained in high preservation.
During the late revolutionary war, when a French army overran this neighbourhood, and was daily expected at the lines (where they soon after arrived), General Castañas, commanding at Algeziras, consented to the destruction of these strong forts and works, to prevent the French establishing themselves in this quarter. The opportunity was gladly availed of by the governor of the garrison; and being mined under the direction of Col. Harding, now commanding royal engineer in Gibraltar, the fort San Felipe first ascended into the air to come down nearly in its present state, and was immediately followed by that of Santa Barbara. The explosion made little noise, and scarcely any fragments were scattered around.
General Castanas is General Francisco Javier Castaños (See LINK)
Most references suggest that Lieutenant Colonel Sir Charles Holloway was in charge of the demolition work. Colonel George Harding was Chief Engineer in Gibraltar around the 1830's and it is possible that he may also have also been involved in the destruction of the lines. On the other hand perhaps the author might have known him and was just trying to be polite.
On the following day, the whole labouring population of Gibraltar proceeded with implements of all sorts, and utterly demolished the lines, as well as every public building that might afford shelter to the enemy. This was followed by the burning and destruction of all the forts and barracks, as far as the small village on the beach, called the Orange Grove, and their ruins, although fast disappearing, may yet be distinctly traced.
Although these excursions may, for the most part, be accomplished without personal danger, instances are not wanting, when even Englishmen have been inconveniently made acquainted with the lawless habits of the Spaniards. Among themselves, the daily occurrences of capture, imprisonment, and ransom, have ceased to possess novelty, and from prudential motives are seldom spoken of.
The Kidnapping - While these lines are writing, the town of San Roque is in a state of great excitement, and a respectable and wealthy family in great affliction. The son, returning with a companion from a country seat, was intercepted by a party of contrabandistas, exasperated at the failure of some recent expeditions, and determined to remunerate themselves on the first occasion. The young man was removed from his fine horse, placed on a sorry nag, and carried into the mountains; his companion being desired to proceed to San Roque, and return with a thousand dollars for the ransom.
Certain places were indicated where the party would be found, he being desired to ride the horse he was then up on, and provide certain marks of dress by which he might be recognized; being told, moreover, in a way not to be misunderstood, that secrecy was essential to the safety of the prisoner.
The money was soon provided, and the precautions taken, as directed, although there is little doubt, the whole proceedings at San Roque were narrowly watched by some companion of the robbers. On arriving at one of the stations indicated, the money was paid, and the young man restored to his friends, with such injunctions, however, as to silence, as permit him only to answer to the interesting inquiries made by his family, “that he had not been ill-treated.”
The relation of occurrences of this sort would be endless. In no part is there safety or security. Even residents in the towns are subjected to contributions from gangs of robbers, who unceremoniously demand money in open day, depart unmolested, and although recognized, are beyond the reach of the law, and continue their depredations with impunity. Such is the state of things in Spain after thirty-four years of revolution.
José María Tempranillo – a well known bandit of the era ( 1820s - John Frederick Lewis ) (See LINK)
This is not the place for a Spanish history lesson but perhaps the author’s comment on “thirty-four years of revolution” deserves an explanation. The Napoleonic War which ended in the beginning of the century crippled Spain both economically and politically. The so called Carlist Wars which began soon after continued for decades and pitted a relatively weak liberal government against a reactionary opposition. Andalucia – including San Roque – tended to side with the Liberals and it is quite obvious from reading the Author’s comments which side of the political divide he most approved of.
Those contarbandistas (see LINK) which he mentions were people who normally earned their living from smuggling goods bought in Gibraltar. One of the most infamous during the 1830s was José Maria (see LINK) for whom kidnapping was more than just a sideline. More often than not the victims would actually be people from Gibraltar - including members of the Garrison. They tended to be better off and more capable of paying a heavy ransom than the locals.
The Theatre - The visitor to Gibraltar will be much disappointed, if he expects to find there the amusements of a capital, or even of a large town. No class of wealthy idlers exists, whose sole employment is to seek pleasure and amusement. Everybody in Gibraltar has an occupation; and although the inhabitants are by no means of austere manners, and are fond of gaiety, less attention is paid to providing amusement and recreation than perhaps in any other place.
Moreover, ground is too valuable, and has hitherto been too much wanted for commercial purposes, to permit its appropriation for buildings for amusement. There are consequently neither concert rooms, nor assembly-rooms, nor any apartments adequate for large assemblages. A portion of a building, intended for other purposes, has been tolerably well arranged to form a theatre, but it is small and incommodious, and scarcely deserves so high-sounding a name.
Notwithstanding these disadvantages, excellent performances have taken place as well by amateurs, as by companies from Seville and Cadiz, both Spanish and Italian. The want of theatrical performance is much to be regretted, for the deficiency of evening amusement causes late dining, and leads to less desirable modes among the young of passing the early hours of the night. It is, however, confidently expected that with the aid of government, a site will soon be found for erecting a theatre, when there is no doubt a good Italian opera would be provided during the greater part of the year.
A relatively decent theatre – the Theatre Royal - was finally built in 1847. (See LINK)
Sport and the Calpe Hunt - Should our traveller be a sportsman, he will not be without exercise or out-door amusements in the winter season. The officers of the garrison keep a pack of fox hounds, and he will be invited twice a week to the hunt. (See LINK) The courtesy of the Spanish authorities permit the mad Englishmen to indulge in their own way in this peculiarly national amusement; the former sometimes complains of his land being unseasonably turned up by horses’ hoofs; but as he always receives compensation, he contents himself with wondering at the folly of such desperate riding, and seeking with so many dogs for a fox, which, if wanted, he could at any time provide by the use of an old fashioned fowling-piece.
The Calpe Hunt (1876 )
Game - Where, as in Spain, even every peasant carries a gun, and where no game laws exist (for the prohibition against shooting during the pairing season cannot be so called), game cannot be very abundant; but the English sportsman, with a little labour, will not be without the means of exercising his skill.
Boar Hunting - From Estepona to Tarifa, he will find in their respective seasons, quails, partridges, snipes, and woodcocks, with great variety of water fowl, hares, and rabbits ; and feel, perhaps, on his return, as much gratification, whether from shooting or fox hunting (somewhat on a miniature scale), as he has occasionally met with in his own country. He should not omit attending a boar hunt or Batida, now unknown in England, although yet practised in Scotland; and if he has not the good fortune to kill a pig, he will be amused by the exhilarating scene,—although perhaps, at first, a little nervous on being placed in position, in face of such desperate enemies, with one barrel loaded with ball, and the other with buck-shot.
If the stranger feels the want of amusement at public places, he will be compensated by the hospitality and attentions of his friends and acquaintances; the civilians and military are alike assiduous in their endeavours to amuse a new comer, who on quitting Gibraltar, will have ample reason to speak favourably of the society he has met with.
He will partake of the elegancies of the convent entertainments, in which all governors have evinced great liberality. The salary of the governor is £5000 a year without any extra allowance. This, although a large sum, seems inadequate in the present state of things. Formerly the arrival of strangers of note was of rare occurrence; the steamers now arriving weekly from England, Malta, and the Levant others daily coming from France and Spain, - continually bring persons of distinction, who expect to be entertained at the convent.
The curiosity of princes induces these exalted personages to behold the wonders of mount Calpe, and royalty itself has deigned to sojourn for a few days on the rock. In 1841, her Majesty the Queen Dowager, on her way to Malta, honoured Sir Alex and Lady Woodford, by becoming their guest: and H. R. H. Prince George of Cambridge lived six months at the governor’s table.
The Dowager Queen Adelaide ( 1831 - Sir William Beechey )
Alexander Woodford (Unknown )
It can’t have been much fun having to put up with the Prince for six months when he visited in 1838 - although by all he seems to have spent most of his time patronising – as somebody wrote - ‘the Sports of Calpe which he always found time to do in spite of being arduously engaged in learning the details of his profession.’
Prince George of Cambridge
Cost of Living - Notwithstanding Gibraltar is abundantly supplied with all kinds of provisions, the expense of living is greater there than at almost any other place. House rent is ruinous servants’ wages most extravagant, and every species of labour is paid for at the most exorbitant rate.
As Gibraltar produces nothing, the expense of transport, whether from afar or from the neighbourhood, is naturally added to the original cost of every article of food or clothing. It is true the inhabitants are relieved from all direct taxation; but from the above causes, the charge of housekeeping falls upon them most heavily, and in increased degree, from the uncertainty or occasional interruption of supplies, and the continual and sometimes sudden demand from shipping in the bay, arriving after long voyages destitute of provisions.
It is certain that a family may live at Algeziras or San Roque for half the sum required in Gibraltar; and the traveller on leaving it, has generally reason to declare it a most expensive place; his dollars having disappeared as rapidly as his shillings did in England.
The numerous shipping in the bay, and the hustle and activity he sees on shore, are sufficiently indicative of great commercial traffic, and in this respect Gibraltar presents a curious anomaly. It is totally without those natural advantages, which in other places have been converted to commercial purposes.
The bay is open and exposed, the anchorage not very secure: and with the exception of the old mole whereon is the Devil’s Tongue battery, serving only to shelter small craft, there is nothing to protect the shipping in tempestuous weather; there are neither commodious wharfs, quays, nor public warehouses; the gates are closed at sun-down, and all business suspended till the morrow; and yet in despite of all these disadvantages, Gibraltar has become a place of considerable trading importance, and its commercial character is now established in Europe.
“Numerous shipping in the Bay” ( 1870s – G.W. Wilson - Detail ) (See LINK)
For this it is indebted, first, to the peculiar circumstances arising out of the last war, and again to its being a free port, whereby those circumstances could be availed of. The British flag being at one time excluded from every other port in Europe, from Heligoland to the Adriatic, Gibraltar became a grand emporium, where it may be said, was conducted the business of all other nations.
The revolution in Spain in 1808, and the opening (of) that immense country to British enterprise, gave an additional stimulus. Numerous commercial establishments were formed, great wealth was acquired, and a capital created, which enables it now, under the great change of circumstances incident to a return of peace, to carry on for its own account operations of great magnitude.
Smuggling - The security it affords, and the absence of all fiscal control, naturally makes it an important depot, more especially for British produce and manufactures. Unfortunately the introduction of many of these is prohibited in Spain; and the consequence is a continual course of smuggling into that country, on account of the Spaniards, and too often connived at by those whose duty there it is to prevent it.
Tobacco, the use of which is so universal in Spain, is also an article of great contraband trade, productive of excesses and irregularities along the whole of its extensive coast. Being a royal monopoly, and the privilege of selling it farmed annually to companies or individuals, the contraband trader is subjected to the severest punishment when detected; the vengeance of injured private interests coming in aid to support the supremacy of the law.
Spanish smugglers from Gibraltar cocking a snook at pursuing revenue men (Unknown )
The Spaniards, notwithstanding, carry on this contraband trade from Gibraltar to a great extent; and for their supply, large quantities are annually imported from the Brazils and the United States. To facilitate the introduction into Spain, much of it is converted at Gibraltar into cigars, the manufacture of which (the only one Gibraltar possesses) gives employment to 1500 or 2000 persons, chiefly women and children, and is a great relief to the lower classes of the population, who would otherwise find the means of support very difficult to be obtained.
The author adopts the usual British arguments in his defence of smuggling in Gibraltar – whatever the whys and wherefores the fault lies squarely with the Spaniards. There is no criticism of the role of the British merchants on the Rock and back home in the UK who were the more than willing suppliers of tax-free goods imported exclusively for smuggling purposes and making enormous personal fortunes in the process. The author even suggests its beneficial side effect in giving employment to the deserving poor.
Petty Smuggling - On the whole, Gibraltar is a well doing and thriving place, and the working classes in general better off than elsewhere. Their wages are high, they enjoy a sort of monopoly (for strangers are sparingly admitted), and are all well clad and well fed. Poverty of course exists, for no community is without it; but pauperism and destitution are rarely found and street mendicity never seen. The cast-off clothes and spare food of the better classes not only afford relief to the poor within the garrison, but charity, by no means deficient in Gibraltar, extends its benevolence to the daily incomers from Spain, who on one visit alone often carry away sufficient to maintain them for a week at their own abodes.
The Police - The civil police (an establishment of modern date) is vigilant, and although the characters and moral conduct of a large portion of the lower classes will not bear much scrutiny, there can nowhere be found a more docile, well-ordered, or quiet population. Crimes of magnitude rarely occur; there is great security of property, and persons are at all hours safe, although few are abroad later than ten o’clock at night, after which hour the streets are for the most part deserted.
Cost and Revenue - As the garrison and fortress of Gibraltar are maintained in the most perfect and efficient state, nothing neglected, nothing allowed to fall to decay, it becomes a very expensive possession to the nation ; but it is daily of more importance, and its value can hardly be estimated. Enormous sums have been expended on the works since it came into our hands, and, although considered impregnable, others are now in progress, for which £200,000 sterling have been voted, to make security doubly sure.
Its local revenue is small, but sufficient for the support of the colonial government, and the expense of the civil establishment. It arises chiefly from a duty on sales at auction; on wines and spirits consumed in licensed houses, and other similar sources; also from the port dues, and rents of lands and houses belonging to government.
Commercial Square - (see LINK) - here being given the name of Auction Square ( 1826 – Felippo Benucci ) (See LINK)
Climate - The delightfulness of the climate is well known, and longevity among the natives prevails. During the greater part of the year, the air is soft, balmy, and exhilarating. In the months of July, August, and September, the heat is most oppressive, and the greatest lover of warm weather hails with pleasure the entrance of October.
At all seasons the east wind is most disagreeable and annoying; when prevailing in the summer time a dense black cloud overhangs the rock, the air is warm and cold alternately, humid and relaxing, and although the atmosphere is less hot than with a west wind, its return produces undisguised delight.
Factors that make people leave - Notwithstanding the advantages of its climate, few persons, except the natives or those in the service of government, make Gibraltar, by choice, a place of permanent residence. Of visitors, the number daily increases, the greater part with commercial views; but after the novelty of a short stay is over, the confinement, its limited extent, want of amusement, the necessary military regulations, and great expense, soon induce them to take their departure.
After these just encomiums on the salubrity of Gibraltar, candour requires to be noticed, that in the last forty years it has been afflicted, at four different periods, by epidemics or, as they are termed, yellow fevers. (See LINK) In 1804, the disease made frightful ravages; the garrison suffered severely; the place was nearly depopulated, and ruin was widely spread around.
No measures, however, seem to have been adopted to prevent a recurrence of- this malady. In 1810 there were strong symptoms of its appearance; and in 1813, it again presented itself in all its violence. From the early part of September till the end of December the gates were closed, all business suspended; and although, very differently from 1804, there was abundance of medical aid, the mortality was great, and the garrison was again subjected to all the distress and misery attendant on a state of such general sickness.
Neglect still prevailed, and nothing precautionary seems to have been adopted. The result was, a return of the disease in 1814, unmitigated in its character, but less fatal as to the number of its victims from the peculiarity, that having once been attacked, is an immunity against a second visitation.
At the end of this year Sir George Don arrived, (see LINK) with ample power and competent resources to adopt necessary measures, in the hope of extirpating this dreadful malady, cordially assisted by the whole population, salutary and effectual measures were instantly pursued; the town was cleansed throughout, every house purified, sewers were everywhere constructed, and the streets paved and lighted; and it was confidently expected, that this scourge would never again return: fourteen years of great salubrity passed, when in 1828 this epidemic, with its attendant horrors, again made its appearance.
General George Don (1830s – Unknown )
The irony of the author’s own comments doesn’t seem to have registered - so much for General Don’s efforts.
Although a large portion of the population was removed outside the garrison, the troops encamped, and every precaution taken, the usual ravages ensued; and until the arrival of cold weather, at the end of the year, the garrison was closed, all business suspended, and communication strictly prevented. Since this period, the customary good health has prevailed in Gibraltar; sanatory (sic) measures are continually observed, and it is again hoped this disease has forever disappeared.
Its cause or origin has given rise to acrimonious disputations among the most scientific medical practitioners. On one side, it is contended that it is introduced from the Havana; on the other that it is of local origin. In former times, it equally afflicted Cadiz, the ports adjoining, and others on the coast; and it is certain, that since quarantines on vessels from the Havana have been enforced with more severity in Spain, this disease has not appeared in that country.
In 1828, a Danish vessel, one crew of which had died in the Havana, and on board of which death had occurred during the voyage, arrived at Gibraltar, all on board being then healthy. She was subject to a rigorous quarantine, and underwent the usual expurgation, but still a very general opinion prevailed that by that vessel the disease was imported.
From such opinion, however, very celebrated medical men, after great research, widely differ; and it may perhaps never be within the reach of human skill to determine with precision, either as to its local origin, or introduction from abroad.
In his defence the old inhabitant – like everybody else at the time – had no notion as to what exactly was causing the disease. For a lengthier analysis on this disagreeable subject it might be best to read about it elsewhere. (See LINK)
Should our metropolitan traveller, having now his curiosity satisfied as to all that relates to Gibraltar and its immediate vicinity, be inclined to extend his excursion, he will be well accommodated on board any of the numerous steam vessels that navigate weekly from Algeziras and Gibraltar to the east coast of Spain, Marseilles, and Genoa; or if inclined to see countries of more ancient renown, he may visit Malta, Constantinople, the Levant, or Egypt, by the steam packets continually navigating.
But to which so ever of these interesting places he may direct his steps, he will not perhaps, in the same small space, find so much to amuse him, whether of natural productions or those of art, as on the Rock of Gibraltar.
The Rock of Gibraltar ( Mid 19th Century - James Webb – Gibraltar )