The People of Gibraltar
1844 - Old Inhabitant’s Traveller’s Handbook - Part 1
Approaching the Rock  . . . . .on the left is Cabrita Point, off which at a short distance lies the Pearl Rock, always under water and consequently dangerous to shipping, but the height of which the British government have in contemplation someday to diminish;
The British Government sat on their hands - at least until 1871 when the Ironclad HMS Agincourt ran aground on it. Luckily with no loss of life. 

HMS Agincourt aground on La Perla  (1871 )
 . . .on Europa Point, appears prominently in view, the Light-House, recently erected near the spot where once stood the chapel and hermitage of the Virgen de Europa; whose lamps, perpetually lighted, afforded to the less venturous mariner of former days, a similar succour to that now given by the modern Pharos. 
The steamer now rapidly advances into the bay, the dock-guard fort is in view; and the eyes of the astonished traveller, instead of finding before them a small, barren, and almost inaccessible rock, are gladdened with the sight of trees, plantations, and gardens, exhibiting luxurious vegetation. . . .

The P and O steamer Lady Mary Wood - In 1823 - according to the Gibraltar Directory of 1938 - the packet Royal George  was the first steamship to arrive in Gibraltar   (1845 - Charles Chabot - Delamotte  )
The traveller before gratifying his curiosity in visiting the neighbourhood of the Rock, will do well to consult the very interesting work,—“Excursions in the mountains of Ronda and Granada," by Captain (now Major) C. Rochfort Scott. 1838. (See LINK
Arrival - Shall we be kept long at the Custom House? is the next interesting question; answered with a complacent smile by the Gibraltarian, that here no Custom House exists. But the place, I mean, where our baggage will be examined?   
With yet greater surprise, the stranger learns there is no examination on entering Gibraltar; that he may carry with him on shore the whole contents of the vessel if he pleases, and embark them again to-morrow without a question being asked; that no duty is payable on goods of any sort, and consequently no examination nor inquiry; that Gibraltar is a free port in the utmost extent of the term; and that if it were not so, the bay would be deserted, - the annual number of vessels anchoring there, be reduced from 2000 to 100, carrying merely supplies for the few inhabitants that would remain, - that salt junk and potatoes would again be the fare of the garrison, and that the daily march of the guards through the main street, would not prevent the grass overspreading it.
Yes indeed and so it had been since Queen Ann agreed to make Gibraltar a free port in 1706 by Royal decree – with all the concomitant problems that would arise from it for Spain as smuggling almost immediately became a  way of life for many on both sides of the frontier.(See LINK)

Plan of Guard house and sentry boxes meant to house anti-smuggling Guardias ( 1727 - Antonio Montaigu de la Perille )
Then follows the confusion of a disembarkation, while tickets are offered (a recent practice) from the owners of houses called hotels, earnestly entreating you to become their guest; and our traveller, having in recollection the commodious inns at Southampton or at Falmouth, now encounters the beginning of his discomforts; for, being assured there are only two where he would like to quarter himself, the Club-house and Griffith’s, he finds, on reaching them, they are both full.
 . . . a brilliant sky, induce him to loiter abroad, rather than seek the interior of his dwelling. This is in the middle of the town, the Commercial Square, formerly the Grand Parade; afterwards the Alameda; (see LINK) and to an Englishman, quitting for the first time his native land, there can nowhere be presented a more animating scene.  
 It is here that sales by auction of all sorts of goods, wares, merchandize, and commodities, are carried on five days in the week, from seven o’clock till noon; and the stranger is surrounded by persons of all nations in their various costumes - Greeks, Turks, Jews, Moors, and Christians . . . his ears are assailed by sounds of strange languages, and he listens with astonishment to the ejaculations of the auctioneers, unintelligible to any but initiated buyers, simultaneously disposing of valuable property within a few yards of each other. 
On the left is a gentleman with a large tray on his head which almost certainly contained a quintessentially chickpea dish which is reputed to have been sold on the Rock since the 16th century and as far as I know still is
To a resident in London, accustomed to see wide streets and lofty houses highly decorated, everything in Gibraltar appears diminutive; the streets narrow, the houses low, irregular, and ill-fashioned; and although, of late, great improvements have taken place, the whole has yet a very mesquin appearance: and as to the shops, they are such as were to be seen in third rate streets in London some fifty years ago. 
. . . . He soon learns that almost every house has a separate owner, often many, maintained by the rents, and that there is seldom any spare money to bestow on fanciful ornament. He may lament the improvidence of the early governors of Gibraltar, in giving away the ground in fee, without any consideration, or stipulations as to the shape, style, or uniformity of the buildings. 
The Civilian Residents - But he must content himself with things as they are; and with a little exertion, he will find ample amusement and gratification in the appearance of the men he meets, - chiefly Spaniards from the east coasts, or the mountains of Ronda; while enchanted with the beaming, dark eye of the gentler sex, many of whom yet appear in the graceful dress of saya and mantilla. 
 . . . the greater part of the male population, at least, are seen in the streets engaged in their respective out-door occupations. Hence the stranger, on his arrival, is led greatly to overrate the actual resident population; not being aware that large numbers invariably quit the garrison at evening gunfire, returning either to their vessels in the bay, or to their dwellings at Algeziras, San Roque, or its neighbourhood. 
It is believed that the last census, taken in 1840 . . . gave 16,000 as the resident civil population, of whom, about 9000 were natives, 900 British subjects, 2000 Spaniards, 1000 Genoese, and 600 Portuguese:
The Jews - Of the 1800 Jews (who appear more numerous, being always in the streets) by far the greater portion are natives; they form the most quiet and orderly part of the population; and to this fractional part of the chosen race, Gibraltar may well be considered another land of promise, they are under no peculiar restraint, but enjoy equal rights, privileges, and protection, with the Christians. 
They wear the jelibea, the tunic, and the gabardine, in true Jewish style, although the richer class adopt the Christian garb and their appearance is undoubtedly as it was in the days of Solomon and David. Although they partake of the longevity incident to the climate, they are not a robust and healthy people. 
The Jews of Gibraltar are of a peculiar sect; coming originally from Barbary, they pertinaciously adhere to Hebrew rites and customs, indulging to the utmost extent in all the peculiar ceremonies of their religion.

The people of Gibraltar – The visitor “will find ample amusement and gratification in the appearance of the men he meets”    ( Mid 19th century – D. F. Molel )
The Economy -  Although the rock of Gibraltar by no means deserves the appellation of barren, it is decidedly unproductive, and may truly be said, as regards human subsistence, absolutely to produce nothing; nevertheless, few places can be found where food of all kinds is more abundant, or the supplies more regular. 
It presents a ready-money market, and as every encouragement is given to the Spaniards in the neighbourhood to bring in their produce, cultivation and consequent production have increased to a wonderful extent. No fixed market-days for its introduction interfere with the stream continually pouring in; mutton, pork, poultry, game, fruit, and vegetables are daily supplied in great abundance, and the whole district from Tarifa to Estepona, seems to be appropriated to providing food for Gibraltar alone. 
The bay furnishes fish in great plenty and considerable variety. Eggs and poultry are brought from Barbary . . . By an arrangement with the emperor of Morocco, our government is allowed to export annually 2000 head of cattle, at a moderate duty, said to be for the use of the garrison; but this quantity, with some little extension, is amply sufficient for the inhabitants as well as the troops, and the price is much less than that of cattle from Spain. 
The Exchange and Commercial Library - Public buildings there are few to engage the attention of the traveller; and in the construction of these utility, rather than ornamental architecture, has been studied. The public Exchange, (see LINK) in the centre of the town, first attracts notice. It was built about twenty-five years ago, by voluntary subscriptions, during the government of Sir George Don; to whom Gibraltar is greatly indebted.
The most curious thing about this illustration is the name of the hotel in the middle distance and middle right. This is where Griffiths ‘Hotel - which is mentioned previously by our old inhabitant - once stood.

Same view but Griffiths’ Hotel   (1830s – Major Richard Hort )  (See LINK)
It was later replaced by the King’s Arms which continued operating right up to at least 1879. -  There is no reference anywhere that it was ever called the King’s Head

( 1879 – Gibraltar Directory Adverts )
. . .  the lower part is appropriated for an exchange and auction rooms, and above is the commercial library; the whole being well arranged and properly adapted to its intended uses.  The Library is a private institution established in 1806, and is supported by annual subscriptions and occasional aid from the proprietors; it contains about 3,000 volumes among which are many valuable works. Newspapers and periodicals of different nations may be seen there; and being kept open during the evening, it is a great resource and recreation to the inhabitants, as well as to strangers, who are always introduced and even allowed to subscribe.
The Exchange and Commercial Library itself was actually founded in 1818 although the richer members of Gibraltar’s merchant elite did found the original library in Bedlam’s Court in 1807.
The Moorish Castle - Of the erections that catch the eye, the Moorish Castle (see LINK) is the most conspicuous, and like everything relating to the early possessors of Gibraltar, well deserves attention. Its commanding situation and noble appearance, even in decay, bear ample testimony to its importance at the time of its construction, when the use of gunpowder was yet unknown. 
The space within its precincts is considerable, although, by the demolition of the outer wall, much less than when held by the Moors. In it are numerous artillery officers’ quarters, barracks for soldiers, and other buildings, as also the provosty (sic) or military prison, and civil jail.
I am not entirely sure what “outer wall” had been demolished but it was often referred to as a ruin by other writers of the period. The author then gives us a lengthy explanation as to its origins based on those described by Francis Carter in his A Journey from Gibraltar to Malaga which was published in 1777. It is a description which modern historians no longer believe to be true.
The square building at the summit, was the Torre del Omenage, and beneath are the remains of the Calahorra or granary, with tanks admirably constructed; yet in use and in good preservation. It had moreover a Giralda, or tower, serving as a citadel, the whole commanding and affording protection to the anchorage within the old mole; the walls of the castle being then washed by the sea. 
A principal one on the south side, the remains of which may yet be seen, extended down to the Atarazana (arsenal), in modern times the navy cooperage, and where are now quarters for military officers; the solid north wall of which, reduced a few years ago more than two feet in thickness, is the continuation of that from the Moorish castle.
I cannot place the tower of la Giralda as described by the Old Inhabitant. Mind you the names of the bits and pieces that make up the Castle and the walls that enclose its precinct can be quite confusing as they are far from having universal acceptance.

This sketch shows the position of the Artarazana close to the beach but does not confirm the old Inhabitants placing of La Giralda  ( Tito Benady – The Streets of Gibraltar )

This plan identifies the Tower of Homage and the Calahorra as one and the same. The Giralda is not mentioned. Some researchers suggest that it was once found on top of North Bastion – the four sided fort shown in the top right edge of the picture    ( 1961 - H.T.Norris – detail )  (See LINK
On quitting the castle, we pass the Debtors’ Prison, a building deserving little notice. Constructed originally for military purposes, it has long been converted to its present use; the interior has been of late rendered more commodious, but since the introduction of the bankrupt laws and insolvent act, the number of inmates has diminished as the accommodation has increased. 
The Hospital - The Civil Hospital contiguous is a most valuable institution for the relief of sick or wounded civilians. Although in the centre of the town, it is admirably situated on a projecting eminence, and detached from other buildings. In the time of the Spaniards, there stood on the same spot a hospital dedicated to San Juan de Dios: (see LINK) in the hands of the English a barrack was erected, but it was neglected and allowed to go to decay, being found unfit for the purpose: the whole was repaired, considerable alterations at the same time made, and then, in 1815, it was appropriated by Sir George Don, with the sanction of government, to its present use.
During the time when San Juan de Dios was converted to military use in the early 18th century it was known as the Blue Barracks – presumably because of the colour of the tiles used in its original construction. It was nowhere near the center of the town but considerably away from it halfway up the western slopes of the Rock.  Modern research has suggested that the Hospital de San Juan de Dios  was actually used as an isolation hospital for people suffering from anything that at the time were thought of as contagious diseases and that the general one was the “Hospital de la Santa Misericordia” which stood on the site of the present City Hall.

Bottom center and on the west side of the main square of Gibraltar is Nuestra Señora de las Misericordias -  The building on the top centre is the hospital of San Juan de Dios  ( 1627 - Luis Bravo de Acuña - detail  ) (see LINK)
It is separated into three divisions, - protestant, catholic, and Hebrew; each under the management of gentlemen, chosen annually by the different communities of these religious persuasions. It is always favoured with the patronage of the governor of the garrison, as its chief, while each division has a deputy governor and committee to superintend the interior arrangements: to conduct it there is a resident surgeon, with other efficacious medical assistance. 
The principal medical officer of the garrison acts gratuitously as consulting physician, and the whole establishment is conducted in the most liberal and praiseworthy manner. Besides the in-patients, who are never very numerous, relief is daily given to all who choose to apply for advice and medicine, both distributed gratis; and the number of these out-patients amounts annually to nearly 6000; moreover, sailors from the shipping in the bay, find here the succour and assistance of which they so often stand in need; nor does any other class derive greater benefit from this institution. 
With this conviction, government has permitted a small sum to be collected with the port dues on every vessel anchoring in the bay; the amount is appropriated for the general fund of the hospital, which is occasionally aided by donations and bequests; while the expenses of each division are separately provided for, by contributions from the members of the respective communities. 
It has, unfortunately, no endowment: and being conducted on a scale of great liberality, the utmost economy is required in its management. On the whole it is a most important institution, and highly beneficial to the population at large. 
Cathedral of St Mary - In the olden time, under catholic dominion, Gibraltar possessed numerous churches and religious houses; but of these, with the exception of the principal church of Saint Mary, in the centre of the town, scarcely a vestige remains. Its exterior is of most ordinary appearance, and undeserving notice; but the inside is very neatly arranged

The “exterior is of most ordinary appearance”
The principal altar is imposing, and on either side the church are smaller ones, very taste fully fitted up. An excellent and fine-toned organ has recently taken the place of the old ruinous one; but as there are no means for paying a good organist, the pealing sounds and softened and subdued melody of this sublime and heavenly instrument yet remain unheard. 
While Gibraltar belonged to Spain, it was considered to be in the diocese of Cadiz and Algeziras, at which latter place (before its annexation to the city of Gibraltar), it would seem from Portillo, (see LINK) an early Spanish writer, the bishop occasionally resided. The Rock, however, was never honoured by this prelate’s permanent abode, until within these last few years when a bishop in partibus has been appointed by the see of Rome. 
The ecclesiastical affairs of the catholic church were conducted by a vicar, with subordinate clergymen; and being now without a diocese, having no endowment, no permanent revenue, no benefices, nor even a decent residence for a bishop, it may be doubted whether any advantage has been gained by the appointment of so high a dignitary, to an establishment so small and insignificant.
By the “city of Gibraltar” he means the Campo de Gibraltar – an area northwards of the Rock still belonging to Spain but which once formed part of its hinterland. As regards the lack of bishops  . . . well he must have just missed it. Bishop Henry Hughes was appointed vicar apostolic and titular bishop on March 1839 and consecrated in 1841.

The Catholic Bishop Henry Hughes
Other Spanish Churches - The existence of the convents, nunneries, and religious houses, with their churches or chapels, terminated, of course, at the capture in 1704 ; but as the population, for the most part Roman catholic, has greatly increased, it is to be regretted, that the ancient church of Saint Mary is the only catholic place of worship. 
The curious, on tracing the remains of antiquity in Gibraltar, may be gratified in learning, that of the convent of white friars, only a large store remains, called the White Cloister, near the meat market; that on the site of a large block of buildings, recently erected in the main street, was the hospital of San Juan de Dios, removed from the hill side; that in College-lane, where existed the convent of the Merceanorios, are now engineer officers’ quarters; that at South Port stood a chapel dedicated to La Señora del Rosario; and that the naval hospital at Rosia, (see LINK) stands on the site of the religious house of Our Lady of Refuge ; while of numerous others of inferior note, no traces can now be found.
The Old Inhabitant was obviously badly informed as regards the old Spanish churches of Gibraltar. White Cloisters was the English name for the convent of Nuestra Señora de la Merced By the Convent of Merceanorios I suppose he meant the convent of the Mercedarios which was just another name for that of Nuestra Señora de la Merced – in other words White Cloisters. It was not in College Lane but rather on the corner of Market Lane with its main facade giving on to Irish Town.  The author was correct in identifying it as being near the meat market.

La Señora del Rosario did indeed exist near the South Port, but the Hospital of San Juan de Dios was never – as far as I can gather – removed from the Hill side. Nor can I find any reference elsewhere for any church by the name of Our Lady of Refuge - but there was an Ermita de Nuestra Señora de los remedios near South Barracks and the old Naval Hospital.
The Convent - The residence of the governor, still denominated the convent, was, in ancient times, a most extensive convent of Franciscan friars; the peculiar arms of which, although plastered over, are still embedded in the wall of the north corridor. As a dwelling, it is well situated, spacious, and tolerably commodious. It commands a fine view of the bay, has an extensive garden, and accommodations suited to the high rank of its occupant. 
While existing as a convent, it had a noble church, part of which (the remainder forming a ball room) was retained and fitted up as a protestant church for the use of the governor, the military and civil officers, and the principal inhabitants, before the present protestant church of the Holy Trinity was erected. (See LINK)

A recognisable “Convent” in the late 1870s – its brick facade  ordered by the governor William Codrington had only recently been finished but the portico was still being constructed  - The photo shows the back pillars are now in place as are the bottom sections of the front ones  ( G.W.Wilson and Co – detail  )  (See LINK)
The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity – This now forms an important feature among the public buildings of Gibraltar; the exterior being remarkable, not only for its heavy clumsy appearance (having more the air of a mausoleum than a church), but for the style of its architecture, which being Arabesque, might be thought more suited to any other edifice than a Christian temple of the West. 
The work of the interior, however, is light and elegant, and the arrangement suited to the accommodation of the troops and protestant inhabitants, as was originally intended. Gibraltar having again restored to it its ancient title of a city, Trinity church, although without a tower, belfry, clock, or organ, is denominated a cathedral.

Inside the Holy Trinity Cathedral   ( Late 19th century – Captain Buckle Album )   (See LINK)
It is presided over by the newly appointed bishop, of Gibraltar and Malta, whose diocese comprises all the British protestant communities of the Mediterranean. In his absence the archdeacon, assisted by the garrison chaplain, canons, &c., fulfils all pastoral duties; performing divine service with all that decorum, regularity, and devotion, so peculiarly characteristic of Protestantism. 
The Methodist conference has had for many years an establishment in Gibraltar, exceedingly well conducted. Their chapel is neat and appropriate, and the teachers indefatigable and zealous. They have several schools, and their industry is unbounded in attempting to train up the children of catholic parents, in the doctrines of Methodism. 
It may be doubted whether these efforts are attended with much success, or whether it is wise to induce children to despise the religion of their parents, under whose roof they are nourished and brought up; but it cannot be denied, that much good results from their unceasing attention to their schools, and as far as they can exercise control, to the conduct of the children. 
Nor are there wanting schools for the instruction of children of other persuasions. To the general or garrison school for children of all religions, as well as to others, government contributes liberally in aid of a small fund, arising from voluntary contributions. Others have been established, and are conducted under the gratuitous care of the Church of England pastors. The catholic bishop has an extensive school under his direction; while another, hardly less extensive, is supported by the catholic community. 
For the support and perfect management of these establishments, wherein are educated, in some degree, 2000 children, adequate means are greatly wanting, and consequently, the benefits that would otherwise arise, are much diminished. 
The Presbyterians - . . . . in Gibraltar are too few to require a separate place of worship; but they have an authorized minister to assist in and superintend their worship, and who is not less zealous in the discharge of his duties, than are his brethren in the like holy calling.
Nevertheless in 1852 the foundation stone of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church was laid in Governor’s Parade. (See LINK

St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church  (Early 20th century )
The Jews - The perfect liberty allowed to the Jews, enables them to practise their devotions in the way most agreeable to them. Their synagogues are too obscure to deserve notice as public buildings; but they adhere with pertinacity to the rites and ceremonies of their ancient worship, observing their Sabbath with a strict relinquishment of all labour, and a rigour of discipline, from which some Christians might well take example.

Mid 19th Century – M. C. Perry   (See LINK)
Cemeteries - A population exceeding 20,000 souls, including the military, naturally requires extensive cemeteries; and although with respect to these, in so confined a place, difficulties have occurred, very suitable spots have been selected. Military and civil officers have always been buried within the fortress. The remains of the former were for many years deposited outside the wall, at South Port; while within, and immediately above, was a small burial place (long since closed) for the use of the older inhabitants; the soldiery and population generally being apparently buried promiscuously over the rock. 
Of late years a small but neat burial ground has been appropriated for the officers of the garrison, which, with that for the Jews, on an elevated part of the rock at the southern extremity, are the only cemeteries within the walls.

The view south towards Spain from the Jewish cemetery   (1820 – Henry Sandham )  ( See LINK)
Occasionally rich individuals, whose executors have paid largely for the privilege, have been buried in the Catholic Church; but this is a rare occurrence, and not much countenanced by the local government. , In the protestant church are deposited the remains of Sir George Don, and of Lady Jane Houstoun, the wife of his immediate successor; and to the memory of both neat monuments have been erected, with suitable inscriptions, adorning the side walls of the building. 
The burial place for the troops and the population at large is outside the garrison, overlooked by the batteries at the north front. It is neatly arranged and properly kept, and is divided into two parts, for the separate interment of Protestants and Catholics.
General Don’s successor as Acting Governor was Sir William Houston and it is his wife Lady Jane Houston whose remains can be found in the Protestant Church.
The Garrison Library . . . claims particular attention, for its internal rather than its external ornaments. It dates from 1793, and claims for its original projector and founder, Col. Drinkwater, (see LINK) the author of the “Siege of Gibraltar,” supported by the governor, Sir Robert Boyd. . . . 
The Gibraltar Chronicle - In aid of its support, a printing office has been long established, from which proceeds daily the “Gibraltar Chronicle,” a periodical of amusement, rather than of great interest to the public of Gibraltar. 
Racket Court - For the gratification of the junior members of the society, a racket court and billiard tables have been established in a contiguous building. But as the expense has been great, thereby curtailing the more legitimate disposal of the funds, this appropriation of them has sometimes met with considerable disapprobation.
On a marble tablet in the centre of the facade, is the following inscription, recording the period of its foundation and the date of its completion:—
Erected by command of his Majesty,
King George the Third
Commenced, A. D. 1800,
Under the auspices of General Charles O’Hara,
At that time Governor of the Fortress;
Completed A. D. 1804,
Under those of the succeeding Governor,
His Royal Highness,
Duke of Kent and Stratharn, K. G.
General of His Majesty’s Forces, &c.,
Court House - There yet remains to be noticed the public Court-house the only building in Gibraltar whose architecture has any pretension to classical style. The vestibule is a plain and miniature imitation of the Parthenon; and although a necessary, but too visible roof prevents any further comparison, the building is sufficiently chaste and elegant, and does credit to the good taste of the projectors; its architrave bears the following
To designate the period of its erection; and as its position is good, being retired from the street and shaded by trees, it forms a conspicuous ornament to Gibraltar. It is here justice is administered, under the direction of separate courts; of these, the Supreme Court is the head, presided over by a chief justice, in both civil and criminal causes. An attorney general, an officer of importance, has been, of late years, appointed; while barristers, advocates, and lawyers, are at hand to help suitors through the mazes of the law.

Court House from Main Street   (Unknown )
In the instance court of vice-admiralty the chief justice also presides, being likewise a member of the admiralty commission for the trial of offences committed on the high seas. Prior to 1830 civil causes were tried in a court denominated the “court of civil pleas,” and it is remarkable that, at that period, when a lawyer was scarcely allowed to be heard, unless by favour, as a prochain ami the court was occupied twice a-week, in determining numerous causes of large amount; whereas, litigation is now so diminished, that the supreme court often sits, merely to rise again, without motion or issue. 
Gibraltar has also a petty debt court, over which presides the police magistrate as commissioner. In it are determined pleas, not amounting to more than ten pounds, with an appeal to the supreme judge, if they exceed five pounds. It is found to be of great utility, and justice being summarily administered, expensive lawsuits for trivial matters are avoided; while, through its intervention, trifling disputes are frequently amicably adjusted. 
Museums - There are not in Gibraltar any learned societies, nor other literary institutions, than the two libraries already noticed; but a museum has lately been established, and although in an incipient state, it possesses objects of much interest, and, with care, may become of great value: a smaller one exists at the civil hospital, and might, perhaps with advantage, be united to the other, to which more attention is apparently given. 
Risk of Fires - No place probably suffers less from conflagrations than Gibraltar, nor when occurring, are they more quickly extinguished. The care of the numerous magazines call forth instant assistance; on the least alarm the whole garrison is under arms, all resort to the duties previously assigned to them, and a powerful working party of the troops, under skilful direction is soon assembled, sufficient, almost by their physical efforts, to extinguish any fire. 
Insurance - Nevertheless, large sums were annually transmitted to England, or elsewhere, as premiums on insurances effected at their offices. Lately, however, a mutual insurance company has been established, for insuring houses and property, and has every prospect of success. No casualty has yet occurred to create a dmand on its funds, and the shares, fifty percent only being yet paid up, bear a considerable premium. 
The Galleries - But it is time that our traveller should quit the lower part of the town, and, while breathing the mountain air, visit the excavations or galleries (see LINK) - monuments of the art and industry of man. Permission is readily obtained, and entering the castle with a proper conductor, the stranger is led through ways, covered and uncovered, to the lower range of galleries, terminating, after a considerable ascent, at Willis’s battery—a very formidable work on an elevated flat, formerly called the Salto del Lobo, (Wolf’s Leap) and most efficacious in disturbing the enemy during the last siege.
Inside the Galleries  (1860 – A.C. Andros )  (See LINK)
From hence, another long ascent leads to the upper range - even more imposing than the lower one. In both are long rows of galleries, excavated in the solid rock - an operation of wonderful skill, ingenuity, and perseverance. At embrasures, or rather port holes, artillery of large calibre are mounted, ready at any moment to deal destruction on an enemy approaching on the land side. 
But the wonder of visitors is greatly increased, on beholding two spacious apartments connected with the upper gallery, called Lord Cornwallis’s and St. George’s Hall; the latter is most magnificent, capable of containing many hundred men; and both have artillery, pointing in the same direction as the guns in the galleries. It is probable, that in no part of the world can be seen similar excavations; and, most certainly, none with the uses for which these are intended. 
They were completed in a comparatively short space of time, and no greater proof of skill in engineering can anywhere be found. The superintending officer of the work Lieut. Evoleth, R. E., had bestowed on him, by government, a large tract of ground, on a long lease, in a central part of the hill side, since become very valuable; and to Ince, (see LINK) a sergeant of artificers, acting under him, was also granted, on like terms, a considerable extent, higher up the rock now known as Ince’s farm.
The 1882 edition of Richard Ford’s Handbook for Travellers in Spain (see LINK) attributes the tunnelling to convict labour working under Lieutenant Evoleth. Ince is not mentioned. An older 1855 edition (see LINK) makes no mention of either soldier.

Elsewhere every history I have ever read – and I have read a few – make Sergeant Ince the instigator and the person appointed by General Eliott to supervise the creation of Gibraltar’s well known Galleries. He may very well have had a commissioned officer as his theoretical boss but none of his contemporary colleagues during the Great Siege makes any mention of him - nor does T.W.J. Connolly, author of the first proper History of the Corp of Royal Sappers and Miners.

John Spilsbury (see LINK) , however, attaches an appendix with the names of the officers who took part in the Siege. One of them is Captain Lt. John Evelegh R.E. who was ADC to the Governor. The author might be referring to him but I cannot find any record of any valuable plots of land being given to him. Ince’s Farm, on the other hand is often appears on maps. As far as I known it is still standing

Ince’s and other farms – but no sign of Lt. Evoleth large tract of land    ( 1830's - Piaget et Lailavoix )
On quitting these wonderful achievements of human art, we soon reach, by a tortuous, but tolerably good mountain road, the highest pinnacle of the rook - the north point, or, as it is usually called, the Rock Gun; although there is now an extensive battery in perfect preservation. . . .
The north point is not the tallest pinnacle - that honour goes to the one furthest south. It was once called the sugar loaf. General O’Hara had his folly built here. (See LINK)
Signal House, El Hacho - Nowhere can be seen a more delightful prospect, and the visitor is already well repaid for the labour of the ascent. But he now directs his steps southward to the Signal House, over a very excellent road of moderate acclivity, made in 1748, by order of General Bland, when governor of Gibraltar, by the labour of delinquents, both civil and military, sentenced, in those days to hard labour, more frequently for drunkenness than any other crime. The whole was completed in about nine months.

Signal Hill   (  1840 – A. Guesdon )  (See LINK)
The distance from the commercial square is a mile and a half, from which place to the signal house, a nobleman, accidentally in Gibraltar, not many years ago, drove up a light carriage, drawn by two mules, with apparent ease, and in a short space of time. Even in the time of the Spaniards, a watch tower and signal station was kept at this place, called the Hacho, to observe the entrance of shipping from either sea. (Hacho means a fagot or fagots, covered with pitch or tar ready for ignition, to make night signals ) 
Middle Hill - During the late war it was of the greatest utility, and it is scarcely less valuable in the present day, for communicating intelligence to the governor and the local authorities. Passing from the north point to the Hacho, has been overlooked the spot called the Middle Hill, where formerly was a guard known by that appellation. It commanded the fishing village of Catalan Bay, on the east side of the rock, (see LINK) but being of no essential service, it has long been neglected, and the guard withdrawn: the debris however of the guard-house &c., &c., still mark

the place of its existence.

“Passing from the north point to the Hacho, has been overlooked the spot called the Middle Hill . . . It commanded the fishing village of Catalan Bay, on the east side of the rock" ( 1870s - George Washington Wilson and Co ) 
If from the north point of the rock was beheld a splendid and magnificent view, that from the signal house is not less deserving notice. The observer looking southward, has in front of him another quarter of the globe, with inhabitants of totally different features, habits, language, and religion. He sees a range of the lesser Atlas, stretching far to the eastward and covered with snow long after it has disappeared from the opposite mountains in Europe. 
Ceuta appears as at his feet; and at a glance, he views Ape’s Hill, the bold shore of the Barbary coast, the straits terminating with the Bay of Tangier, whose white town may be descried in clear weather, and the noble bay of Gibraltar, studded with numerous vessels sailing in all directions - the whole forming a scene as picturesque and beautiful, as any the warmest imagination can figure to itself. 
La Silleta and Susarte - Proceeding onwards, a spot is presently reached, to which is attached an almost fabulous legend, that must ever make it memorable in Gibraltar annals. Not far from the signal house, is an indenture in the rock, formerly called the silleta (little chair), and at this place, in the silence of the night, a chivalrous band ascended the almost perpendicular height, on the east side of the rock, in the hope of wresting from the English a conquest, of which they had scarcely taken possession. 
In the same year in which it had been captured, the king of Spain commenced a vigorous siege, in the hope of recovering it; and while the usual military operations were carried on, a goatherd offered to the commander of the combined forces, (French and Spanish) to conduct to the top of the rock, by a path well known to him, on the east side called the Senda del Pastor (Shepherd’s Path), any number of troops that might be sent to accompany him.
The author continues to describe the event in some detail over several pages. The goatherd was Simon Susarte. (See LINK)
O’Hara’s Tower - Contiguous to the Silleta stand the remains of a tower erected by General O’Hara and bearing his name. The precise object of its construction is unknown, for the common report, that it was intended to be of an elevation sufficient to overlook Cadiz Bay, deserves little attention: it stands on an elevated projecting point of the rock, in a commanding position, but although the remains of buildings, apparently for a guard-house, adjoin it, there are none indicative of a battery. 
The view from it is equally grand and magnificent; and immediately below it lies the table land, called Windmill Hill, with its fine range of barracks, the Jews’ burial ground, Europa point, Rosia, (see LINK) the arsenal, &c.,
All other of reports I have ever read concerning the purpose of O’Hara’s tower insist that it was indeed built for the purpose of checking out Cadiz – hence its popular name of O’Hara’s Folly.

O’Hara’s Folly  - as the Old Inhabitant would have known it   ( 1844 - George Lothian Hall )   (See LINK)
But we now return to seek refreshment and repose, and to prepare for other expeditions: and although at a great elevation, and considerable distance from the town—facilis decensus—the pedestrian quickly finds himself at his dwelling, benefitted equally by respiring the pure air of the mountain, and by the exhilaration of his spirits, from the gratification his excursion has afforded him.